The effect of freeze-drying and the assessment of the storage stability of freeze-dried royal jelly (RJ) were investigated by the determination of furosine and blocked lysine. The level of furosine in the RJ samples collected from cells at different times (1, 2, and 3 days after grafting) showed that the Maillard reaction had already occurred in the hive as indicated by the increase in furosine: from 9.6 to 20.8 mg/100 g of protein. Freeze-dried RJ was more prone to the early stage of the Maillard reaction than fresh RJ, as confirmed by the significantly higher furosine values found after 12 months, both at 4 degrees C (253.4 versus 54.9 mg/100 g of protein) and at room temperature (884.3 versus 332.5 mg/100 g of protein). After 18 months at room temperature, the lyophilized samples reached a furosine level of 1440.4 mg/100 g of protein, which corresponded to the blocked lysine levels, amounting to 24% of total lysine.
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/jf0404647|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000229405000020|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-20744438919|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|