This study evaluated the content of heavy metals in samples of eye shadows. Samples were manufactured in different countries (China, Italy, and USA). The content of Pb was measured by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS). The quantification of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and nickel was performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analyses were preceded by microwave-assisted acid digestion of the eye shadows. In many samples the lead was present within 20μgg-1, the value indicated as safe in good manufacturing practice, but it exceed this limit in four Chinese samples. The levels of cadmium, chromium and cobalt were always low and within acceptable and safe concentrations for the products made in Italy and USA, but the nickel concentrationexceeded the safe limit in many Chinese eye shadows. The overall results indicate that eye shadows are likely harmful when they are made according to current regulations, while products imported from China can be harmful. Therefore, major quality controls are recommended for products designed to enter in direct and long contact with the skin of eyelids when imported from countries with different regulations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2011.10.008|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000300746900011|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-83555174706|
|Titolo:||Determination and assessments of selected heavy metals in eye shadow cosmetics from China, Italy, and USA|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|