Polyelectrolyte capsules represent a class of particles composed of an internal core and an external polymer matrix shell. In recent years, it has become clear that the manufacture of polyelectrolyte capsule is likely to have a significant role in several areas including medicine and biology.Many distinct methodologies for the fabrications of templated globules have been reported. Despite the huge availability of knowledge used to obtain such globules, the choice of the appropriate technology for the desired applications demands a deeper appreciation of this issue. Furthermore, the extent to which the applications of polyelectrolyte capsule may be actively involved in the practical biomedical field is still a fascinating challenge. Here, we review the recipes for the globule assembly with their own benefits and limitations and how different templates could affect the final globule features, with a particular focus on the Layer by Layer (LbL) procedure. The latest applications in biological, therapeutical and diagnostic areas are also discussed and some outlooks for the strategic development of polymer globule are highlighted.