Casertana is an Italian autochthonous pig breed. In the past, the breed was common in Campania and the surrounding area in South Italy because it was valued for its productive performance, particularly regarding the fattening tendency,but in recent decades, autochthonous swine have been replaced by cosmopolitan lean-type pigs and the Casertana breed also experienced a dramatic reduction in numbers. Concern over the preservation of genetic resources and the increased demand for regional food suggest a new way of maintaining the breed. Unfortunately, few recent data on the morphological as well as on the productive traits are available. To ascertain the characteristics of the Casertana breed a productive trial was performed by comparing Casertana and Large White pure breed and their cross. Sixteen females and 6 males of pure breed Casertana and 18 females and 2 males of pure breed Italian Large White were mated twice to produce Casertana, Large White and Casertana x Large White piglets. The average number of piglets born was significantly lower in Casertana gilts, but no difference in the number of weaned piglets among genetic types was observed. Sixtyeight animals of the three genetic types were reared outdoors and received two distinct diets differing in energy content. Pigs were weighted individually every month to calculate average daily gain. Morphological traits of Casertana pigs were also recorded. A total of 54 animals (21 Casertana at 151 kg live weight, 15 crossbreed at 157 kg live weight and 18 Large White at 179 kg live weight) were slaughtered and data on carcasses were collected. Average daily weight gain differed markedly (P< 0.05) among genetic types (450; 552; 695 g/d, respectively for Casertana; Casertana x Large White; Large White) and consequently the slaughter weight also differed. Casertana showed higher dressing percentages that the Italian Large White (P< 0.05). Backfat thickness was also clearly affected by genetic type (P< 0.05): Casertana pigs had the highest value (44.91 mm). The diet had no influence on the average daily weight gain and backfat thickness. However, pigs fed with higher energy component had higher (P< 0.05) dressing percentage.