Besides its use in the brewing industry, hop cones appear as a powerful source of biologically active compounds, already checked for their putative anticancer, antimicrobial, and other bioactivities. Conversely, hop use in pest control remains to date under-investigated. Therefore, the biological activity of hop essential oil (EO) and its main constituents was investigated here against Sitophilus granarius. Adult contact toxicity was found 24 h after treatment with hop EO (LD50/LD90 13.30/40.23 μµg/adult), and its three most abundant components, α-humulene, β-myrcene, and β-caryophyllene (LD50/LD90 41.87/73.51, 75.91/126.05, and 138.51/241.27 μµg/adult, respectively); negligible variations at 48 h, except for α-humulene (LD50/LD90 26.83/49.49 μµg/adult), were found. The fumigant toxicity of the EO and terpenes was also checked: in the absence of wheat grains, β-myrcene showed the highest inhalation toxicity (LC50/LC90 72.78/116.92 mg/L air), whereas α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, and the EO induced similar values (LC50/LC90 about 130/200 mg/L air); with the exception for EO, the wheat presence increased (30–50%) LC50/LC90 values. Moreover, EO and terpenes were perceived by insect antennae and elicited repellent activity. Only β-caryophyllene showed an anticholinesterase effect, this suggesting that different mechanisms of action should be responsible for hop EO toxicity. Therefore, hop EO appears suitable for developing control means against this pest.
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10081108|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000577868800001|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-85088799348|
|Titolo:||Biological activity of Humulus lupulus (L.) essential oil and its main components against Sitophilus granarius (L.)|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|