Asphalt concretes are biphasic systems, with a predominant phase (c.a. 93–96% w/w) made by the macro-meter sized inorganic aggregates hold together by small amounts of a viscoelastic binding bitumen (c.a. 5%). Even if the bitumen is in minor amount, it plays an important role dictating all the desired properties: rheological performances, resistance to aging etc. What happens if nanoparticles are used as additive in such materials? They usually confer enhanced resistance under mechanical stress and give sometimes interesting added-values properties so, despite the high costs of their production, nanoparticles are interesting materials which are being monitored for large scales applications. This work introduces the reader to the properties of nanoparticles in an easy to review their use in bitumen and asphalt preparation. Silica, ceramic, clay, other oxides and inorganic nanoparticles are presented and critically discussed in the framework of their use in bitumen and asphalt preparation for various scopes. Organic and functionalized nanoparticles are likewise discussed. Perspectives and cost analysis are also given for a more complete view of the problematic, hoping this could help researchers in their piloted design of material for road pavements with ever-increasing performances.
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