In this paper two solar electric-driven air conditioning systems are compared and analyzed from an energy and environmental point of view. Both systems satisfy the electricity, space heating and cooling needs of an existing multi-purpose, multi-story building that is simulated with TRNSYS 17. The first one, considered as reference system, is based on a centralized electric heat pump coupled with a conventional photovoltaic plant installed 10 years ago. The second one, hereinafter proposed system, has a hybrid configuration, consisting of a ground-source heat pump, a low temperature thermal network and a series of electric heat pumps, one per apartment. In addition, the plant is connected to a high-performance commercial photovoltaic system equipped with a solar tracking system to the panels. Five different solutions realized with vertical, two horizontal orientations, polar and two-axis trackers are taken into account and compared with the standard fixed configuration. The last hybrid configuration can be seen as an upgrade of an existing decentralized air conditioning system in which the local electric heat pumps are converted in water-to-water devices that interact with the thermal grid representing the heat source/sink for them. In both solar electric heating and cooling plants the photovoltaic system is installed on the building roof and it produces electricity to feed the heat pumps and end-users. The electricity surplus or the load not covered by solar field is fed to/taken from power grid. The energy and environmental analyses have been performed by considering both average annual and monthly values of power grid efficiency and CO2emission factor for electricity. By comparing reference system and proposed one equipped with a two-axis tracker system a primary fossil energy saving of 101.67% is achieved in summer period and 28.10% in winter period. These percentages are the highest values recorded, even if, for all configurations the energy analysis rewards the proposed system. The results of environmental analysis demonstrate that the reference system has the worst performances compared to proposed system with all solar tracker systems selected guarantying positive values for avoided carbon dioxide index up to 45.86%.
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en13143585|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000558253500001|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-85090510838|
|Titolo:||Comparison of two solar pv-driven air conditioning systems with different tracking modes|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|