Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents the most common arrhythmia worldwide and its prevalence exponentially increases with age. It is related to increased risk of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, which determines a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, as widely documented in the literature. AF also constitutes a risk factor for other less investigated conditions, such as heart failure, pulmonary embolism, impairment in physical performance, reduced quality of life, development of disability, mood disorders and cognitive impairment up to dementia. In the elderly population, the management of AF and its complications is particularly complex due to the heterogeneity of the ageing process, the lack of specific evidence-based recommendations, as well as the high grade of comorbidity and disability characterizing the over 65 years aged people. In the present review, we aim to summarize the pieces of the most updated evidence on AF complications beyond stoke, mainly focusing on the elderly population.
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