"Experiments were carried out to study the effects of N fertilizer rates and timing of application on the yield and grain quality of a rainfed emmer crop (Triticum dicoccum Shubler) under Mediterranean conditions. The following parameters were analyzed: hulled and net grain yield, hulled index, spikes m(-2), spikelets per spike, kernels m(-2), thousand-kernel weight, biomass, plant height, lodging, grain protein and ash content. In the first experiment, different N rates (30.60 and 90 kg N ha(-1) plus a control not fertilized) were split at three phenological stages (seeding 20%, tillering 40% and stem elongation 40%). In the second experiment, three N doses (30.60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)) were applied to three crop stages (seeding, tillering and stem elongation). In the third experiment, the rate of 90 kg N ha(-1) was distributed in different amounts (90-0-0, 0-90-0, 0-0-90, 45-45-0, 45-0-45, 0-45-45, 30-30-30) at the three mentioned crop stages. Increasing N rates resulted in higher hulled and net grain yield, as well as protein content. Fertilization (from 60 to 90 kg N ha(-1)) applied to tillering maximized hulled and net grain yield. Fertilization (90 kg N ha(-1)) applied to stem elongation gave the highest grain protein content (%) while splitting application (30 kg N ha(-1) each) at three phenological stages maximized protein yield per hectare. Application of half or one-third of 90 kg N ha(-1) to stem elongation improved grain protein content in comparison with applications at sowing, or at both sowing and tillering. The main factor determining higher yields with increasing N rates in this emmer crop was the number of kernels m(-2). None of the yield components accounted for differences in grain yield when timing and splitting application were varied. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."

Effects of varying nitrogen fertilization on crop yield and grain quality of emmer grown in atypical Mediterranean environment in central Italy

MARINO, Stefano;ALVINO, Arturo;TOGNETTI, Roberto
2011

Abstract

"Experiments were carried out to study the effects of N fertilizer rates and timing of application on the yield and grain quality of a rainfed emmer crop (Triticum dicoccum Shubler) under Mediterranean conditions. The following parameters were analyzed: hulled and net grain yield, hulled index, spikes m(-2), spikelets per spike, kernels m(-2), thousand-kernel weight, biomass, plant height, lodging, grain protein and ash content. In the first experiment, different N rates (30.60 and 90 kg N ha(-1) plus a control not fertilized) were split at three phenological stages (seeding 20%, tillering 40% and stem elongation 40%). In the second experiment, three N doses (30.60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)) were applied to three crop stages (seeding, tillering and stem elongation). In the third experiment, the rate of 90 kg N ha(-1) was distributed in different amounts (90-0-0, 0-90-0, 0-0-90, 45-45-0, 45-0-45, 0-45-45, 30-30-30) at the three mentioned crop stages. Increasing N rates resulted in higher hulled and net grain yield, as well as protein content. Fertilization (from 60 to 90 kg N ha(-1)) applied to tillering maximized hulled and net grain yield. Fertilization (90 kg N ha(-1)) applied to stem elongation gave the highest grain protein content (%) while splitting application (30 kg N ha(-1) each) at three phenological stages maximized protein yield per hectare. Application of half or one-third of 90 kg N ha(-1) to stem elongation improved grain protein content in comparison with applications at sowing, or at both sowing and tillering. The main factor determining higher yields with increasing N rates in this emmer crop was the number of kernels m(-2). None of the yield components accounted for differences in grain yield when timing and splitting application were varied. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11695/8188
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