During the last decades, the economic importance of tephritid fruit flies (FF) has increased worldwide because of recurrent invasions and expansions into new areas, and reduced control capabilities of current control systems. Efficient monitoring systems, thus, are required to provide fast information to act promptly. With this aim in mind, we developed two electronic trap (e-trap) versions for adult FF: one with specific volatiles for male and female adult Ceratitis capitata, and the second, based on the attraction of adult FF to yellow colour, targeting Dacus ciliatus, Rhagoletis cerasi and Bactrocera oleae. In the case of B. oleae, the female pheromone and ammonium bicarbonate were added as synergists. In the two versions, attracted FF were retained in the trap on glued surfaces. Real-time images of the surfaces were automatically taken and transmitted to a server. We tested the two e-trap versions in insect-proof cages, where flies were released and recaptured, and in commercial orchards throughout the Mediterranean: C. capitata in peach orchards in Italy; R. cerasi in cherry orchards in Greece; B. oleae in olive orchards in Spain and in Greece; and D. ciliatus in melons in plastic tunnels in Israel. The e-trap showed excellent abilities to transmit real-time images of trapped FF and a high specificity for trapping different FF species. The ability of the entomologist to correctly classify FF from images in the office was >88%. In addition, average number of flies/trap in e-trap grids did not differ from numbers reported on grids of conventional traps that were operating simultaneously. The e-traps developed and tested in this study provide the basis for the real-time monitoring of FF were no olfactory attractants are available, and for the surveillance of alien FF incursions where generic, but not specific, olfactory attractants exists.
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000419830900006|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-85026775923|
|Titolo:||Electronic traps for detection and population monitoring of adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|