The management of open fractures and delayed or non unions continue to be complicated by high rates of treatment failure and significant patient disability and dissatisfaction. The use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the treatment of these injuries has been assessed by several authors. BMPs induce the process of bone healing by recruiting bone-forming cells to the area of lesion. The use of BMP currently has two FDA-approved indications: treatment of open tibial fractures treated with intramedullary fixation and treatment of tibia long bone non-union. Despite this limited target, off-label BMP use continues to push the spectrum for new applications. This review describes the current evidence for the use of BMPs in open fractures and non-unions
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