The statistics collected in the last few years in Italy reveal that the massive attendance of foreign children in schools requires urgent educational intervention in the intercultural sense. The school has a social organization that continuously puts in place relational dynamics. Therefore, it is the privileged place to promote respect for diversity and to foster cultural and civic development of those who, in the near future, will be the main protagonists of our society. For this reason, this article focuses primarily on the school and on the eventual arising problems, considering the complexity of this issue. The purpose of this article is, first of all, to provide some pedagogical orientations through the examination of the existing literature on this subject. Secondly, the aim is to propose some possible reflections on the anthropological, political and socio-cultural issues, connected with the problem of immigration and the Italian society evolution, that may be useful for developing intercultural education path in all its specific phases.