"Vibrio spp. infections still are a Public Health concern. Vibrio spp. can be found in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments, and can be able to cause diseases in fish, shellfish, mammals, as well as in humans. Since '80 to date, the number of species within the genus increased from 21 to more than 100. The most important is Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the cholera, responsible of seven pandemics; serotypes O1 and O139 can produce cholera toxin, while serotypes non-O1\/non-O139 are generally associated with sporadic cholera cases and extraintestinal infections. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important cause of gastroenteritis associated with contaminated seafood consumption, whereas Vibrio vulnificus and V. alginolyticus can be related to wound infections or seafoodborne primary septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Disease prevention is mainly based on the application of proper individual or collective preventive measures."