Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the most ancient crops of the Mediterranean region used for human nutrition; an extensive differentiation of L. culinaris over millennia has resulted in a number of different landraces. As a consequence of environmental and socio-economic issues, the disappearance of many of them occurred in more recent times. To investigate the potential of proteomics as a tool in phylogenetic studies, testing the possibility to identify specific markers of different plant landraces, 2-D gel electrophoretic maps of mature seeds were obtained from seven lentil populations belonging to a local ecotype (Capracotta) and five commercial varieties (Turca Rossa, Canadese, Castelluccio di Norcia, Rascino and Colfiorito). 2-DE analysis resolved hundreds of protein species in each lentil sample, among which only 122 were further identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and/or nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS, probably as a result of the poor information available on L. culinaris genome. A comparison of these maps revealed that 103 protein spots were differentially expressed within and between populations. The multivariate statistical analyses carried out on these variably expressed spots showed that 24 protein species were essential for population discrimination, thus determining their proposition as landrace markers. Besides providing the first reference map of mature lentil seeds, our data confirm previous studies based on morphological/ genetic observations and further support the valuable use of proteomic techniques as phylogenetic tool in plant studies.