The aim of this paper is to explore the role of farmers in Italy who are involved in Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs), paying particular attention to sustainability in terms of its social, economic and environmental dimensions. Research is based upon a set of indicators linked to structural and economic aspects, and also to issues relating to employment. ANOVA and MANOVA models are used to highlight farm behaviors within SFSCs about sustainability. The analysis identified the complex nature of the relationships between farms involved in various short food supply chain schemes regarding the sustainability. While the social dimension is highly important in the case of farmers’ markets and multi-chain farms, the environmental dimension is more significant for solidarity purchasing groups and farms selling directly. The economic dimension has a key role in each of the different types. Apart from these considerations, SFSCs have a fundamental place in promoting and achieving sustainability at local level.