Eight measurements taken on the right calcaneus (maximum length, load arm width, minimum width, height of calcaneus, body height, breadth of the facies articularis talaris posterior, breadth and height of the facies articularis cuboidea) of a known contemporary Southern Italian skeletal population (40 males and 40 females) were used to determine sex by multivariate discriminant analysis. Three functions revealed a correct sex-determination of 85%. These functions were obtained by the association of the following parameters: maximum length, load arm width and breadth of the facies art. talaris post. (function no. 1); maximum length and breadth of the facies art. talaris post. (function no. 2); maximum length and height of the facies art. cuboidea and breadth of the facies art. cuboidea (function no. 3). These results may aid the forensic anthropologist when no other remains, useful for skeletal sex determination, are available.