Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a human viral infectious disease caused by the positive-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (Retroviridae family, Ortervirales order). HIV-1 can be distinguished into various worldwide spread groups and subtypes. HIV-2 also causes human immunodeficiency, which develops slowly and tends to be less aggressive. HIV-2 only partially homologates to HIV-1 despite the similar derivation. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the treatment approved to control HIV infection, based on multiple antiretroviral drugs that belong to different classes: (i) NNRTIs, (ii) NRTIs, (iii) PIs, (iv) INSTIs, and (v) entry inhibitors. These drugs, acting on different stages of the HIV life cycle, decrease the patient's total burden of HIV, maintain the function of the immune system, and prevent opportunistic infections. The appearance of several strains resistant to these drugs, however, represents a problem today that needs to be addressed as best as we can. New outbreaks of strains show a widespread geographic distribution and a highly variable mortality rate, even affecting treated patients significantly. Therefore, novel treatment approaches should be explored. The present review discusses updated information on HIV-1- and HIV-2-resistant strains, including details on different mutations responsible for drug resistance.

HIV and Drug-Resistant Subtypes

Rinaldi, Luca;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a human viral infectious disease caused by the positive-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (Retroviridae family, Ortervirales order). HIV-1 can be distinguished into various worldwide spread groups and subtypes. HIV-2 also causes human immunodeficiency, which develops slowly and tends to be less aggressive. HIV-2 only partially homologates to HIV-1 despite the similar derivation. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the treatment approved to control HIV infection, based on multiple antiretroviral drugs that belong to different classes: (i) NNRTIs, (ii) NRTIs, (iii) PIs, (iv) INSTIs, and (v) entry inhibitors. These drugs, acting on different stages of the HIV life cycle, decrease the patient's total burden of HIV, maintain the function of the immune system, and prevent opportunistic infections. The appearance of several strains resistant to these drugs, however, represents a problem today that needs to be addressed as best as we can. New outbreaks of strains show a widespread geographic distribution and a highly variable mortality rate, even affecting treated patients significantly. Therefore, novel treatment approaches should be explored. The present review discusses updated information on HIV-1- and HIV-2-resistant strains, including details on different mutations responsible for drug resistance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11695/127830
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