BET proteins function as histone code readers of acetylated lysins that determine the positive regulation in transcription of genes involved in cell cycle progression, differentiation, inflammation, and many other pathways. In recent years, thanks to the development of BET inhibitors, interest in this protein family has risen for its relevance in brain development and function. For example, experimental evidence has shown that BET modulation affects neuronal activity and the expression of genes involved in learning and memory. In addition, BET inhibition strongly suppresses molecular pathways related to neuroinflammation. These observations suggest that BET modulation may play a critical role in the onset and during the development of diverse neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, fragile X syndrome, and Rett syndrome. In this review article, we summarize the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of BET proteins in brain physiology and pathology, as well as their pharmacological potential as targets for therapeutic purposes.
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