Among all the emerging contaminants, fragrances are gaining more relevance for their proven allergenic and, in some cases, endocrine-disrupting properties. To date, little information exists on their concentration in the air. This study aims to fill this gap by developing a method for the determination of semivolatile fragrances in the indoor gaseous phase with sampling protocols usually adopted for the collection of atmospheric particulate matter (sampling time 24 h, flow rate 10 L min(-1)) and instrumental analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The method was developed on 66 analytes and tested at three concentration levels: 20 compounds showed analytical recoveries >= 72% with percentage standard deviations always better than 20%. For most compounds, negligible sampling breakthroughs were observed. The method was then applied to real samples collected in a coffee bar and in a private house. Considering the fragrances for which the method has shown good effectiveness, the highest concentrations were observed for carvone in the coffee bar (349 ng m(-3)) and camphor in the house (157 ng m(-3)). As concerns certain or suspected endocrine disruptors, lilyal and galaxolide were detected at both sites, alpha-isomethylionone was the second most concentrated compound in the house (63.2 ng m(-3)), musk xylene and musk ketone were present at lower concentration (approximate to 1 or 2 ng m(-3)).
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