Forest ecosystems strongly contribute to the mitigation of climate change impacts through the carbon stored in forests and through harvested wood products, such as sawed wood and furniture, which are obtained from many types of timber assortments. Timber assortments are defined as log sections of specific dimensions (log length and maximum/minimum end diameters), gathered from felled trunks, that have both specific commercial timber utilisation and economic value. However, it is challenging to discriminate and assess timber assortment types, especially within a forest stand before the forest has been harvested. Accurate estimations of timber assortments are a fundamental prerequisite in supporting forest holdings and assisting practitioners in the optimisation of harvesting activities and promoting forest wood chains, in addition to forest policy and planning. Based on the georeferenced points cloud tool, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a powerful technology for rapidly and accurately depicting forest structure, even if the use of LiDAR for timber assortments estimation is lacking and poorly explored. This systematic literature review aimed to highlight the state-of-the-art applications of the LiDAR systems (spaceborne; airborne, including unmanned aerial UASs; and terrestrial) to quantify and classify different timber assortment types. A total of 304 peer-reviewed papers were examined. The results highlight a constant increment of published articles using LiDAR systems for forest-related aspects in the period between 2000 and 2021. The most recurring investigation topics in LiDAR studies were forest inventory and forest productivity. No studies were found that used spaceborne LiDAR systems for timber assortment assessments, as these were conditioned by the time and sample size (sample size = similar to 12 m/similar to 25 m of laser footprint and 0.7 m/60 m of space along the track for ICESat-2, GEDI and time = since 2018). Terrestrial LiDAR systems demonstrated a higher performance in successfully characterising the trees belonging to an understory layer. Combining airborne/UAS systems with terrestrial LiDAR systems is a promising approach to obtain detailed data concerning the timber assortments of large forest covers. Overall, our results reveal that the interest of scientists in using machine and deep learning algorithms for LiDAR processes is steadily increasing.

LiDAR as a Tool for Assessing Timber Assortments: A Systematic Literature Review

Marchetti, M
Secondo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Lasserre, B
Penultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Santopuoli, G
Ultimo
Supervision
2022-01-01

Abstract

Forest ecosystems strongly contribute to the mitigation of climate change impacts through the carbon stored in forests and through harvested wood products, such as sawed wood and furniture, which are obtained from many types of timber assortments. Timber assortments are defined as log sections of specific dimensions (log length and maximum/minimum end diameters), gathered from felled trunks, that have both specific commercial timber utilisation and economic value. However, it is challenging to discriminate and assess timber assortment types, especially within a forest stand before the forest has been harvested. Accurate estimations of timber assortments are a fundamental prerequisite in supporting forest holdings and assisting practitioners in the optimisation of harvesting activities and promoting forest wood chains, in addition to forest policy and planning. Based on the georeferenced points cloud tool, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a powerful technology for rapidly and accurately depicting forest structure, even if the use of LiDAR for timber assortments estimation is lacking and poorly explored. This systematic literature review aimed to highlight the state-of-the-art applications of the LiDAR systems (spaceborne; airborne, including unmanned aerial UASs; and terrestrial) to quantify and classify different timber assortment types. A total of 304 peer-reviewed papers were examined. The results highlight a constant increment of published articles using LiDAR systems for forest-related aspects in the period between 2000 and 2021. The most recurring investigation topics in LiDAR studies were forest inventory and forest productivity. No studies were found that used spaceborne LiDAR systems for timber assortment assessments, as these were conditioned by the time and sample size (sample size = similar to 12 m/similar to 25 m of laser footprint and 0.7 m/60 m of space along the track for ICESat-2, GEDI and time = since 2018). Terrestrial LiDAR systems demonstrated a higher performance in successfully characterising the trees belonging to an understory layer. Combining airborne/UAS systems with terrestrial LiDAR systems is a promising approach to obtain detailed data concerning the timber assortments of large forest covers. Overall, our results reveal that the interest of scientists in using machine and deep learning algorithms for LiDAR processes is steadily increasing.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11695/112767
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