Simple Summary Semen cryobanking is a valuable tool for preserving the genetic resources of a wide range of species, providing the opportunituy to preserve representative samples and reconstruct the population or diversity. However, in avian species, the freezing-thawing process results in a sharp reduction in sperm quality and consequently fertility. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge about the molecular basis of the cryopreservation process, especially in more sensitive species such as turkey. Thus, in this study, we took advantage of NMR technology to assess the changes in metabolic profile occurring in turkey sperm cryopreservation, which were correlated with sperm qualitative parameters measured in both fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Hence, the results reported here depict a clearer scenario about the changes in the levels of amino acids, other water-soluble compounds, and lipids resulting from the freezing-thawing process. Moreover, a wide discussion about the possible pathway affected by cryopreservation is provided. Therefore, this study allows us to: (i) identify biological markers related to the sperm freezability of male turkey donators; (ii) suggest a supplementation of specific metabolites in the diet or in the freezing medium in order to obtain spermatozoa abler to withstand the freezing process. Semen cryopreservation represents the main tool for preservation of biodiversity; however, in avian species, the freezing-thawing process results in a sharp reduction in sperm quality and consequently fertility. Thus, to gain a first insight into the molecular basis of the cryopreservation of turkey sperm, the NMR-assessed metabolite profiles of fresh and frozen-thawed samples were herein investigated and compared with sperm qualitative parameters. Cryopreservation decreased the sperm viability, mobility, and osmotic tolerance of frozen-thawed samples. This decrease in sperm quality was associated with the variation in the levels of some metabolites in both aqueous and lipid sperm extracts, as investigated by NMR analysis. Higher amounts of the amino acids Ala, Ile, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Val were found in fresh than in frozen-thawed sperm; on the contrary, Gly content increased after cryopreservation. A positive correlation (p < 0.01) between the amino acid levels and all qualitative parameters was found, except in the case of Gly, the levels of which were negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with sperm quality. Other water-soluble compounds, namely formate, lactate, AMP, creatine, and carnitine, turned out to be present at higher concentrations in fresh sperm, whereas cryopreserved samples showed increased levels of citrate and acetyl-carnitine. Frozen-thawed sperm also showed decreases in cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas saturated fatty acids were found to be higher in cryopreserved than in fresh sperm. Interestingly, lactate, carnitine (p < 0.01), AMP, creatine, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine (p < 0.05) levels were positively correlated with all sperm quality parameters, whereas citrate (p < 0.01), fumarate, acetyl-carnitine, and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05) showed negative correlations. A detailed discussion aimed at explaining these correlations in the sperm cell context is provided, returning a clearer scenario of metabolic changes occurring in turkey sperm cryopreservation.

The Effect of Semen Cryopreservation Process on Metabolomic Profiles of Turkey Sperm as Assessed by NMR Analysis

Paventi, G
Primo
;
Di Iorio, M
Secondo
;
Rusco, G;Antenucci, E;Mannina, L;Iaffaldano, N
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Semen cryobanking is a valuable tool for preserving the genetic resources of a wide range of species, providing the opportunituy to preserve representative samples and reconstruct the population or diversity. However, in avian species, the freezing-thawing process results in a sharp reduction in sperm quality and consequently fertility. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge about the molecular basis of the cryopreservation process, especially in more sensitive species such as turkey. Thus, in this study, we took advantage of NMR technology to assess the changes in metabolic profile occurring in turkey sperm cryopreservation, which were correlated with sperm qualitative parameters measured in both fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Hence, the results reported here depict a clearer scenario about the changes in the levels of amino acids, other water-soluble compounds, and lipids resulting from the freezing-thawing process. Moreover, a wide discussion about the possible pathway affected by cryopreservation is provided. Therefore, this study allows us to: (i) identify biological markers related to the sperm freezability of male turkey donators; (ii) suggest a supplementation of specific metabolites in the diet or in the freezing medium in order to obtain spermatozoa abler to withstand the freezing process. Semen cryopreservation represents the main tool for preservation of biodiversity; however, in avian species, the freezing-thawing process results in a sharp reduction in sperm quality and consequently fertility. Thus, to gain a first insight into the molecular basis of the cryopreservation of turkey sperm, the NMR-assessed metabolite profiles of fresh and frozen-thawed samples were herein investigated and compared with sperm qualitative parameters. Cryopreservation decreased the sperm viability, mobility, and osmotic tolerance of frozen-thawed samples. This decrease in sperm quality was associated with the variation in the levels of some metabolites in both aqueous and lipid sperm extracts, as investigated by NMR analysis. Higher amounts of the amino acids Ala, Ile, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Val were found in fresh than in frozen-thawed sperm; on the contrary, Gly content increased after cryopreservation. A positive correlation (p < 0.01) between the amino acid levels and all qualitative parameters was found, except in the case of Gly, the levels of which were negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with sperm quality. Other water-soluble compounds, namely formate, lactate, AMP, creatine, and carnitine, turned out to be present at higher concentrations in fresh sperm, whereas cryopreserved samples showed increased levels of citrate and acetyl-carnitine. Frozen-thawed sperm also showed decreases in cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas saturated fatty acids were found to be higher in cryopreserved than in fresh sperm. Interestingly, lactate, carnitine (p < 0.01), AMP, creatine, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine (p < 0.05) levels were positively correlated with all sperm quality parameters, whereas citrate (p < 0.01), fumarate, acetyl-carnitine, and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05) showed negative correlations. A detailed discussion aimed at explaining these correlations in the sperm cell context is provided, returning a clearer scenario of metabolic changes occurring in turkey sperm cryopreservation.
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/11/5/642
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11695/110487
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