This paper summarizes the most recent studies on primary school teachers’ associative phenomenon in Italy between Unification and late Ninteenth century. The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of associations and the transition from mainly local, mutual modes of social organization to more professional and nationally organized groups. This process started at the end of the forties of the nineteenth century in the State of Piedmont, thanks to the activism of inspectors, teachers or liberal politicians which believed in the value of education to develop better economic, social and political overview. In this period association members undertook higher professional qualification in order to increase primary and popular education. They promoted kindergartens, evening classes and Sunday schools, male and female elementary schools; and they also drew up plans to build new ‘normal’ schools and new forms of mutual aid. After the birth of the Italian State, teachers’ associations multiplied, especially in urban centers such as Milan, Naples, Rome, Florence, Genoa etc. However, only since the eighties of the nineteenth century early experiences with national traits began. In particular, we will take into account some of the most significant examples of primary school teachers’ associations of the 19th centuries such as the Associazione Nazionale fra gli insegnanti elementari d’Italia born in 1880.