Human and bovine lactoferrin (hLf and bLf) are multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein constitutively synthesized and secreted by glandular epithelial cells and by neutrophils following induction. HLf and bLf possess very high similarity of sequence. Therefore, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies are carried out with commercial bLf (cbLf), available in large quantities and recognized by Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA) as a safe substance. Physico-chemical heterogeneity of different cbLf preparations influences their effectiveness. CbLf iron-saturation affects thermal stability and resistance to proteolysis. Moreover, other metal ions such as Al(III), Cu(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) are chelated by cbLf, even if at lower affinity than Fe(III). Ca(II) is also sequestered by the carboxylate groups of sialic acid present on glycan chains of cbLf thus provoking the release of LPS, contributing to bactericidal activity. Similarly to more than 50% of eukaryotic proteins, cbLf possesses five N-glycosylation sites, also contributing to the resistance to proteolysis and, putatively, to the protection of intestinal mucosa from pathogens. CbLfs possess several functions as antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, anti-adhesive, anti-invasive and anti-inflammatory activities. They are also relevant modulators of iron and inflammatory homeostasis. However, the efficacy of cbLfs in exerting several functions can be erratic mainly depending from integrity, degree of iron and other metal ions saturation, N-glycosylation sites and chains, desialylated forms, Ca(II) sequestration, presence of contaminants and finally the ability to enter inside nucleus.
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-018-0092-8|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000433095300002|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-85042935424|
|Titolo:||Physico-chemical properties influence the functions and efficacy of commercial bovine lactoferrins|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|