Splenic injuries are common emergencies in the setting of abdominal trauma, as the spleen is the second most frequently injured abdominal organ after the liver. The treatment of splenic injuries underwent a severe shift from operative to non-operative due to an increased awareness of the double physiological function, both immunological and hematological, of the spleen. This, in turn, led to an increased application of splenic preservation techniques. The non-operative approach has been strengthened through radiological imaging and interventional radiology. While multidetector computed tomography is mandatory in the evaluation of hemodynamically stable patients after high-energy trauma, one ultrasound (US) can be used as a first-line technique to examine patients in cases of low-energy trauma. Unfortunately, baseline US has low sensitivity in the detection of traumatic injuries. With the introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a reliable alternative to baseline ultrasound for low-grade abdominal trauma, the sensitivity of the US technique in recognizing traumatic abdominal lesions has strongly increased, reaching levels of accuracy similar to those of the CT. It has also been strongly recommended for use with children, as it allows for the performance of imaging techniques with the lowest dose of radiation possible. In this review, the authors aim to present the typical appearance of traumatic splenic injuries, using enhanced CEUS capability to overcome baseline US limits, and to describe the different techniques applied according to the hemodynamic stability of the patient.

Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis and management of traumatic splenic injuries

Brunese, Luca;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Splenic injuries are common emergencies in the setting of abdominal trauma, as the spleen is the second most frequently injured abdominal organ after the liver. The treatment of splenic injuries underwent a severe shift from operative to non-operative due to an increased awareness of the double physiological function, both immunological and hematological, of the spleen. This, in turn, led to an increased application of splenic preservation techniques. The non-operative approach has been strengthened through radiological imaging and interventional radiology. While multidetector computed tomography is mandatory in the evaluation of hemodynamically stable patients after high-energy trauma, one ultrasound (US) can be used as a first-line technique to examine patients in cases of low-energy trauma. Unfortunately, baseline US has low sensitivity in the detection of traumatic injuries. With the introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a reliable alternative to baseline ultrasound for low-grade abdominal trauma, the sensitivity of the US technique in recognizing traumatic abdominal lesions has strongly increased, reaching levels of accuracy similar to those of the CT. It has also been strongly recommended for use with children, as it allows for the performance of imaging techniques with the lowest dose of radiation possible. In this review, the authors aim to present the typical appearance of traumatic splenic injuries, using enhanced CEUS capability to overcome baseline US limits, and to describe the different techniques applied according to the hemodynamic stability of the patient.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11695/82240
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