Introduction Several studies have shown that physical activity delays the onset of cognitive disability in healthy older adults. However, there are few specific studies regarding the most effective kind of training. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different training methods in older adults, in order to identify the one that brings the greater benefits. This study is preceded by two previous studies. In the first observational study, the correlation between physical activities practice and cognitive function was analyzed. In the second study, a randomized controlled trial, the effects of a 2 year general training on the cognitive function were evaluated. Both these studies suggested a significant effect of the physical activity on the memory performances, evaluated by Rey's word list recall tests.. Methods A Randomized controlled trial of 12 week monitored physical activity was conducted. Eighty subjects, aged 66.96 ± 6.21 years, were screened for eligibility. The subjects were randomly assigned in four groups: STRENGTH Group (n=20), performing resistance training for the 6 major muscle groups (60% - 85% of 1-Repetition Maximum); AEROBIC Group (n=20), performing aerobic exercises at intensity range of 70-95% of Maximum Heart Rate); POSTURAL Group (n=20), performing postural exercises and CONTROL Group (n =20), which has not received any treatment. Outcome measures were Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Rey's word list recall tests, Attentional Matrices, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Stroop test, Prose memory test, Copying of Drawings with and without landmarks, Trial Making Test (TMT) version A and B, Memory Assessment Clinics-Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) showed significant differences among the 4 groups in the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, both in time and correct answers (p<0.05), in the second test of Attentional Matrices (p< 0.05), in Copying of Drawing time (p<0.05) and in the MAC-Q (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the other tests. Post hoc analysis showed the following results: in the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, the AEROBIC group reached better results than CONTROL group (p< 0.05). Similarly in the Test of Attentional Matrices, the AEROBIC group reached better results than CONTROL group (p<0.05). In in Copying of Drawing time better results were reached by the STRENGTH group vs. CONTROLS (p<0.05). In the MAC-Q, all the 3 experimental groups obtained better scores than CONTROLS (p<0.05). Discussion These results showed that different protocols of physical exercise produced different effects on cognitive functions, whereas in comparison with the two preliminary studies results, the study suggests, that the best effects of the physical activity on the memory are not produced by a specific kind of training. The best scores in the memory tests are reached by a mixed program of physical activity. However the scores of the 3 experimental groups were generally better than CONTROLS. A longer time of observation is required to obtain more significant results also in the other tests.

Effetti di diversi protocolli di attività fisica sulle capacità cognitive in soggetti anziani

Iuliano, Enzo
2014-05-22

Abstract

Introduction Several studies have shown that physical activity delays the onset of cognitive disability in healthy older adults. However, there are few specific studies regarding the most effective kind of training. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different training methods in older adults, in order to identify the one that brings the greater benefits. This study is preceded by two previous studies. In the first observational study, the correlation between physical activities practice and cognitive function was analyzed. In the second study, a randomized controlled trial, the effects of a 2 year general training on the cognitive function were evaluated. Both these studies suggested a significant effect of the physical activity on the memory performances, evaluated by Rey's word list recall tests.. Methods A Randomized controlled trial of 12 week monitored physical activity was conducted. Eighty subjects, aged 66.96 ± 6.21 years, were screened for eligibility. The subjects were randomly assigned in four groups: STRENGTH Group (n=20), performing resistance training for the 6 major muscle groups (60% - 85% of 1-Repetition Maximum); AEROBIC Group (n=20), performing aerobic exercises at intensity range of 70-95% of Maximum Heart Rate); POSTURAL Group (n=20), performing postural exercises and CONTROL Group (n =20), which has not received any treatment. Outcome measures were Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Rey's word list recall tests, Attentional Matrices, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Stroop test, Prose memory test, Copying of Drawings with and without landmarks, Trial Making Test (TMT) version A and B, Memory Assessment Clinics-Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) showed significant differences among the 4 groups in the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, both in time and correct answers (p<0.05), in the second test of Attentional Matrices (p< 0.05), in Copying of Drawing time (p<0.05) and in the MAC-Q (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the other tests. Post hoc analysis showed the following results: in the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, the AEROBIC group reached better results than CONTROL group (p< 0.05). Similarly in the Test of Attentional Matrices, the AEROBIC group reached better results than CONTROL group (p<0.05). In in Copying of Drawing time better results were reached by the STRENGTH group vs. CONTROLS (p<0.05). In the MAC-Q, all the 3 experimental groups obtained better scores than CONTROLS (p<0.05). Discussion These results showed that different protocols of physical exercise produced different effects on cognitive functions, whereas in comparison with the two preliminary studies results, the study suggests, that the best effects of the physical activity on the memory are not produced by a specific kind of training. The best scores in the memory tests are reached by a mixed program of physical activity. However the scores of the 3 experimental groups were generally better than CONTROLS. A longer time of observation is required to obtain more significant results also in the other tests.
Effects of different kind of physical exercise on cognitive function in older adults
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11695/66352
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