Traditional sunflower oil, commonly known as “high-linoleic sunflower oil”, is characterized by a high concentration of linoleic acid, followed by the oleic acid. It is considered to be of good quality for edible purposes and is widely used as salad oil, cooking and frying oil, in margarine pro-duction and much more. Nevertheless, modern food industry requires special and tailored fats and so the development of new sunflower oil type is became one important genetic breeding objective. In the last decades, modification of the quality of sunflower seed oil is achieved through tech-niques of traditional breeding, mutagenesis, hybridization or transgenic genetic engineering. As a result, some current sunflower varieties are profoundly changed from that of the past and new lines with increased oil content of seeds and/or improvements in oil composition are commercially avail-able and in some cases also widely cultivated. Principal innovative sunflower oils with genetically modified composition are the following: high- and mid- oleic, high-stearic, high-palmitic and finally, oils with different tocopherol profile. Advantages of innovative sunflower edible oils are variable. High-oleic and high-stearic oil shown nutritional and health benefices. Innovative sunflower oils are considered to be a valuable alternative to the hydrogenated oils in industrial applications in order to obtain solid or semi-solid fats. Actually, soft non-hydrogenated margarines containing high-oleic sunflower oil are available on the market. Besides, high-palmitic and high-stearic sunflower oils are semisolid at room temperature and so they can be directly used for margarine and shortening production. Finally, oxidative stability of innovative sunflower oils is higher than that of traditional oil and this quality is desirable for frying purposes, refining and storage.
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