Peritoneal carcinosis is a condition characterized by the spread of cancer cells to the peritoneum, which is the thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. It is a serious condition that can result from many different types of cancer, including ovarian, colon, stomach, pancreatic, and appendix cancer. The diagnosis and quantification of lesions in peritoneal carcinosis are critical in the management of patients with the condition, and imaging plays a central role in this process. Radiologists play a vital role in the multidisciplinary management of patients with peritoneal carcinosis. They need to have a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition, the underlying neoplasms, and the typical imaging findings. In addition, they need to be aware of the differential diagnoses and the advantages and disadvantages of the various imaging methods available. Imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis and quantification of lesions, and radiologists play a critical role in this process. Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and PET/CT scans are used to diagnose peritoneal carcinosis. Each imaging procedure has advantages and disadvantages, and particular imaging techniques are recommended based on patient conditions. Our aim is to provide knowledge to radiologists regarding appropriate techniques, imaging findings, differential diagnoses, and treatment options. With the advent of AI in oncology, the future of precision medicine appears promising, and the interconnection between structured reporting and AI is likely to improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment outcomes for patients with peritoneal carcinosis.
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