Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are heterogeneous tumours with a common phenotype descended from the diffuse endocrine system. NENs are found nearly anywhere in the body but the most frequent location is the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are rather uncommon, representing around 2% of all gastrointestinal tumours and 20–30% of all primary neoplasms of the small bowel. GI-NENs have various clinical manifestations due to the different substances they can produce; some of these tumours appear to be associated with familial syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasm and neurofibromatosis type 1. The current WHO classification (2019) divides NENs into three major categories: well-differentiated NENs, poorly differentiated NENs, and mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms. The diagnosis, localization, and staging of GI-NENs include morphology and functional imaging, above all contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), and in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, a key role is played by 68Ga-labelled-somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTA-peptides) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/TC). In this review of recent literature, we described the objectives of morphological/functional imaging and potential future possibilities of prognostic imaging in the assessment of GI-NENs.
|Titolo:||Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs): hot topics in morphological, functional, and prognostic imaging|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.2 Recensione in rivista|