The adrenergic nervous system is a crucial regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, both in physiological and pathological conditions. It fine-tunes heart rate, cardiac contractility, vascular constriction/relaxation as well as atrioventricular conduction. The actions of the adrenergic nervous system are mediated by catecholamine binding to the different adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes. The ARs belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. To date, a total of three types and nine subtypes of ARs have been identified and classified into α1-AR (α1A, α1B, α1D), α2-AR (α2A, α2B, α2C), and β-AR (β1, β2, β3). All ARs primarily signal through heterotrimeric G proteins. Importantly, signaling through these receptors is finely regulated, and receptor activation also triggers regulatory processes that are responsible for receptor dysfunctional signaling in several cardiovascular diseases, including chronic heart failure (HF). The present chapter discusses the role of the adrenergic nervous system in cardiac physiology and in the pathophysiological model of HF, the mechanisms of regulation of sympathetic activity, and how they are dysfunctional in HF, the molecular alterations in heart physiology that occur in HF.

The Adrenergic System of the Myocardium

K. Komici;
2015-01-01

Abstract

The adrenergic nervous system is a crucial regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, both in physiological and pathological conditions. It fine-tunes heart rate, cardiac contractility, vascular constriction/relaxation as well as atrioventricular conduction. The actions of the adrenergic nervous system are mediated by catecholamine binding to the different adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes. The ARs belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. To date, a total of three types and nine subtypes of ARs have been identified and classified into α1-AR (α1A, α1B, α1D), α2-AR (α2A, α2B, α2C), and β-AR (β1, β2, β3). All ARs primarily signal through heterotrimeric G proteins. Importantly, signaling through these receptors is finely regulated, and receptor activation also triggers regulatory processes that are responsible for receptor dysfunctional signaling in several cardiovascular diseases, including chronic heart failure (HF). The present chapter discusses the role of the adrenergic nervous system in cardiac physiology and in the pathophysiological model of HF, the mechanisms of regulation of sympathetic activity, and how they are dysfunctional in HF, the molecular alterations in heart physiology that occur in HF.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11695/107320
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