Fifteen commercial samples of royal jelly, consisting of 10 imported samples, and 5 samples of known origin obtained freshly harvested from beekeepers, were analyzed for protein, lysine, and furosine content. In addition, a commercial sample of royal jelly, at the beginning of its commercial shelf life, was stored for 10 months both at 4 degreesC and at room temperature in order to assess the development of the Maillard reaction (furosine) and relative nutritional damage (blocked lysine). The commercial royal jelly products contained different amounts of furosine, ranging from 37.1 to 113.3 mg/100 g protein, evidence of different storage times and conditions. The average furosine content of the royal jelly samples of known origin and harvesting was significantly lower than that of the imported samples (41.7 versus 73.6 mg/100 g protein, respectively). With regard to shelf life, furosine content increased significantly from 72.0 mg/100 g protein to 500.8 mg/100 g protein after 10 months of storage at room temperature, while it increased to a much lower level (100.5 mg/100 g protein) when the royal jelly was stored at 4 degreesC. However, nutritional damage, expressed as blocked lysine (calculated indirectly from the furosine content), was minor or negligible, 11.9 and 2.3% of total lysine, in samples stored at room temperature and at 4 degreesC, respectively. Lysine was determined by an innovative procedure based on high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The results showed that furosine is a suitable index for assessing the quality and freshness of royal jelly.
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/jf0114987|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000175355200017|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-0037041918|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|