The occurrence of nine mycotoxins and of contamination by pre- and postharvest fungal pathogens of cereals was investigated in samples of stored Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccon Schrank (emmer), and Triticum spelta L. (spelt). In Italy, all three species are collectively referred to as farro. The samples examined were harvested in summer 2000 from eight different sites in southern Italy. Conventional ﬂuorimetric and diode array–based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and HPLC–mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify fumonisin B1 in ﬁve samples (up to 70.00 ug/kg), ochratoxin A in seven samples (up to 4.07 ug/kg), and beauvericin in three samples (up to 4.44 ug/kg). Enniatin B was detected in one sample (30.00 ug/kg), but no zearalenone or fusaproliferin was found. Deoxynivalenol and aﬂatoxins were not evaluated. The potentially mycotoxigenic fungal species detected were Alternaria alternata, Fusarium proliferatum, Fu- sarium tricinctum, Penicillium verrucosum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. This is the ﬁrst report of the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in farro samples.