Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs) represent the second most common pancreatic tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varying clinical expression and biological behavior, from indolent to aggressive ones. PanNENs can be functioning or non-functioning in accordance with their ability or not to produce metabolically active hormones. They are histopathologically classified according to the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Although the final diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor relies on histologic examina-tion of biopsy or surgical specimens, both morphologic and functional imaging are crucial for patient care. Morphologic imaging with ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for initial evaluation and staging of disease, as well as surveillance and therapy monitoring. Functional imaging techniques with somatostatin receptor scin-tigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used for functional and metabolic assessment that is helpful for therapy management and post-therapeutic re-staging. This article re-views the morphological and functional imaging modalities now available and the imaging features of panNENs. Finally, future imaging challenges, such as radiomics analysis, are illustrated.

Imaging of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Recchia L.;Brunese L.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs) represent the second most common pancreatic tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varying clinical expression and biological behavior, from indolent to aggressive ones. PanNENs can be functioning or non-functioning in accordance with their ability or not to produce metabolically active hormones. They are histopathologically classified according to the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Although the final diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor relies on histologic examina-tion of biopsy or surgical specimens, both morphologic and functional imaging are crucial for patient care. Morphologic imaging with ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for initial evaluation and staging of disease, as well as surveillance and therapy monitoring. Functional imaging techniques with somatostatin receptor scin-tigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used for functional and metabolic assessment that is helpful for therapy management and post-therapeutic re-staging. This article re-views the morphological and functional imaging modalities now available and the imaging features of panNENs. Finally, future imaging challenges, such as radiomics analysis, are illustrated.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11695/100479
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 21
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 12
social impact